Apr. 18, 2018
When you're living with type 2 diabetes, your body does not make enough insulin or it does not use it properly. Since insulin is the hormone that regulates the movement of sugar out of your blood and into your cells, not having enough insulin may cause your blood sugar level (also called blood glucose) to rise too high (hyperglycemia).1
Diabetes therapy is designed to manage blood sugar levels throughout the day and night, in order to prevent health complications. Over time, too much sugar in your blood can damage your large blood vessels. This could cause problems with the heart, brain and legs (macrovascular complications) and damage to the small blood vessels, causing problems in the eyes, kidneys, feet and nerves (microvascular complications).2
Long-acting, or basal, insulin stays in your body throughout the day and can help control your blood sugar when you are not eating. However, long-acting insulin may not manage the increase in blood sugar when you eat food. To control those mealtime blood sugar spikes your healthcare provider may prescribe a fast-acting mealtime insulin to better match the insulin to what your body needs. The chart below shows an example of the spikes in blood sugar levels that can happen with meals.3
Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease. This means it may become more challenging to control as time goes on. If your healthcare provider prescribes insulin, it does not mean you or your body have failed. If you find your current therapy is not working for you, talk with your healthcare provider. It may be time to make changes to your therapy. If you notice typical symptoms of hyperglycemia such as tiredness, irritability, blurry vision, more frequent urination and thirst, call your healthcare provider.2 Through a combination of proper nutrition, exercise, medication and not smoking, the risk of most diabetes-related complications can be reduced.4
Articles are written by MannKind Corporation staff and contributors from the diabetes community
 Kawahito S, Kitahata H, Oshita S. Problems associated with glucose toxicity: Role of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2009;15(33):4137-4142. doi:10.3748/wjg.15.4137.
 Fowler M. Microvascular and Macrovascular Complications of Diabetes. Clinical Diabetes. 2008 Apr, 26 (2) 77-82; DOI: 10.2337/diaclin.26.2.77
 Columbia University. Pharmacologic Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. Columbia University Website. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/hs... Accessed 4.11.18
 UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998; 352: 837–53.
Afrezza can cause serious side effects, including: Sudden lung problems (bronchospasms). Do not use Afrezza if you have long-term (chronic) lung problems such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Before starting Afrezza, your healthcare provider will give you a breathing test to check how your lungs are working.
Afrezza can cause serious side effects, including: Sudden lung problems (bronchospasms). Do not use Afrezza if you have long-term (chronic) lung problems such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Afrezza can cause serious side effects, including:
Sudden lung problems (bronchospasms). Do not use Afrezza if you have long-term (chronic) lung problems such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Before starting Afrezza, your healthcare provider will give you a breathing test to check how your lungs are working.
Do not use Afrezza if you:
Before using Afrezza, tell your healthcare provider about all your medical conditions, including if you:
Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins or herbal supplements.
Before you start using Afrezza, talk to your healthcare provider about low blood sugar and how to manage it.
While using Afrezza do not:
Afrezza may cause serious side effects that can lead to death, including:
See “What is the most important information I should know about Afrezza?” at the top of this page.
Treatment with TZDs and Afrezza may need to be changed or stopped by your healthcare provider if you have new or worse heart failure.
Get emergency medical help if you have:
• Trouble breathing, shortness of breath, fast heartbeat, swelling of your face, tongue, or throat, sweating, extreme drowsiness, dizziness, confusion.
The most common side effects of Afrezza include:
These are not all the possible side effects of Afrezza. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 (1-800-332-1088).
Active ingredient: human insulin
Inactive ingredients: fumaryl diketopiperazine, polysorbate 80
General information about the safe and effective use of Afrezza.
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use Afrezza for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Afrezza to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them.
This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about Afrezza. If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about Afrezza that is written for health professionals.